When Giant Fungi Ruled

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  • Published on:  Monday, December 18, 2017
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    420 million years ago, a giant feasted on the dead, growing slowly into the largest living thing on land. It belonged to an unlikely group of pioneers that ultimately made life on land possible -- the fungi.

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

    Thanks to Franz Anthony of 252mya.com and Jon Hughes of jfhdigital.com for their tremendous reconstructions of Prototaxites.

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    References:
    http://www.davidmoore.org.uk/21st_Century_Guidebook_to_Fungi_PLATINUM/REPRINT_collection/Hueber_Prototaxites2001.pdf
    https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/04/070425-fungus-fossil_2.html
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/boj.12389/abstract
    http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/07/070423.fungus.shtml
    https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/prehistoric-world/devonian/
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2880155/
    https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/978-3-662-46011-5_10.pdf
    http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/devonian/devonian.php
    https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/artful-amoeba/the-world-s-largest-mining-operation-is-run-by-fungi/
    http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/7/4/574
    https://books.google.com/books?id=gSAufF5IUKoC&pg=PA233&lpg=PA233&dq=prototaxites+1843&source=bl&ots=G_xulZhwpL&sig=NfRL10g81UGZJ-SQxEV8iNCb88E&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjpsYrenq3XAhWL6IMKHd5zBosQ6AEINDAC#v=onepage&q=prototaxites%201843&f=false
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21684921
    https://academic.oup.com/botlinnean/article-lookup/doi/10.1111/boj.12389
    https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/oldest-plant-fossil-found
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2818.1873.tb04672.x/abstract
    http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fungi/lichens/lichenfr.html
    http://science.sciencemag.org/content/293/5532/1129
    http://www.newsweek.com/fossilized-fungi-worlds-oldest-land-fossil-432797
    http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20151205-one-amazing-substance-allowed-life-to-thrive-on-land
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2002.00397.x/abstract
    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3852/13-390?journalCode=umyc20
    https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/artful-amoeba/were-weirdo-ediacarans-really-lichens-fungi-and-slime-molds/
    https://www.nature.com/articles/nature01884
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_9079000/9079963.stm
    https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/24/1/55/206443/new-evidence-for-land-plants-from-the-lower-middle?redirectedFrom=fulltext
    http://science.psu.edu/news-and-events/2001-news/Hedges8-2001.htm
    https://academic.oup.com/botlinnean/article/180/4/452/2416561
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/boj.12389/abstract
    https://qz.com/630770/a-scientist-identified-the-oldest-land-fossil-ever-and-realized-it-was-eating-something-even-older/
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034666713000948
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/3427499.stm ~419mya
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    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC333434/
    https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-abstract/30/5/391/192367/first-steps-on-land-arthropod-trackways-in?redirectedFrom=fulltext
    https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/geological-magazine/article/non-marine-arthropod-traces-from-the-subaerial-ordovician-borrowdale-volcanic-group-english-lake-district/A203763DC4AEA05D731966614AB2DE30
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420932
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263080406_Rotted_wood-alga-fungus_The_history_and_life_of_Prototaxites_Dawson_1859
    https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/paleontological-society-special-publications/article/solution-to-the-enigma-of-prototaxites/F153A7007C25269D6C58734E8FF96F18
    https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2396361.pdf
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    https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4094847.pdf
  • Source: https://youtu.be/-G64DagHuOg
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Comment

  • elise veldt

    elise veldt

     yesterday

    image they were psychoactive

  • Red Wrightyr

    Red Wrightyr

     yesterday

    Clickers: Default Dancing

  • krystian murawski

    krystian murawski

     2 days ago

    Probably Warhammer orcs

  • xXKing_Of_ DublinXx

    xXKing_Of_ DublinXx

     2 days ago

    so its earth but with a felucia skin

  • Proteintial

    Proteintial

     3 days ago

    Thanks fun guy

  • Thijs Bergman

    Thijs Bergman

     3 days ago

    0:35 The host is like a real life Dr. Steve Brule but he also looks like buff Gregg Turkington

  • DestyNova

    DestyNova

     3 days ago

    Fungus was the first among us?

  • Ry Young

    Ry Young

     3 days ago

    would it be possible that the giant fungi died off because the climate shifted warmer than what they could take?

  • Bill Keck

    Bill Keck

     4 days ago

    I'm lichen a fungus.

  • Bill Keck

    Bill Keck

     4 days ago

    There is a Fungus Amongus!

  • Liam Hofmans

    Liam Hofmans

     4 days ago +2

    "Probably weird algae"
    Me: lol

  • Gustavo Santiago

    Gustavo Santiago

     4 days ago +4

    Arbiter: What is it? More Covenant?
    MasterChief: Worse..

  • Raileigh Greene

    Raileigh Greene

     4 days ago

    Fungi, lichen.. they have such nice names.

  • Anton Dereke

    Anton Dereke

     5 days ago +1

    I used to rule the world

  • Michael Lubin

    Michael Lubin

     5 days ago +1

    I wish a fungus would wrap itself around your voicebox so you would speak more slowly.

  • MtnTow

    MtnTow

     6 days ago +5

    First signs of conscientious actions would be a cool topic.

  • Michael Sauve

    Michael Sauve

     6 days ago

    We all miss andre the giant...

  • Zeebra237

    Zeebra237

     7 days ago +1

    Fungi evolved from being killed off by vascular plants to living symbiotically with plants. Mycorrhizal fungi attach themselves to the roots of plats, such as, corn and rose bushes. They scout for anyone of 41 nutrients that a plant can order. Dr Elaine Ingham told us: "Suppose a leafon a branch 100 feet in the air decided it needs Calcium. It sends a chemical message down to the roots of the tree which tell the fungi 'I want Calcium'. The fungi sends Calcium up to the leaf in exchange for sugar made from photosynthesis. This 200 plus foot round trip takes 90 seconds." Nature is amazing.

  • Kilju Pullo

    Kilju Pullo

     7 days ago

    magic mushroom.. oh no yes

  • Visual_Vexing

    Visual_Vexing

     7 days ago

    Fungus among us